Anaphylaxis in Dogs 

What is an anaphylactic reaction? 

An anaphylactic reaction or anaphylaxis is a direct hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction to a foreign substance, especially a foreign protein, known as an allergen or antigen. Emergency care services are required if you find anaphylaxis in your dog. 

What causes an anaphylactic reaction?  

Ahead of an anaphylactic reaction that may happen, the pet has to have had previous exposure to the offending material.  A frequent example is that a puppy stung by a bee develops an allergy to bee stings.  The very first time that the dog is stung, a short-term localized response referred to as a humoral reaction happens. 

Anaphylaxis-in-DogsThis reaction causes the immune system to make a compound called Immunoglobulin E (IgE) that binds to the surface of mast cells.  Mast cells are responsible for the redness and swelling (hives) that you see in the website of the sting.  At this point, the patient is said to be sensitized to the bees poison. 

The second time the puppy is stung, the sensitized mast cells will comprehend the foreign protein (bee toxin) and release their contents at a procedure called degranulation and activation.  In milder cases of anaphylaxis, a localized allergic reaction such as extreme swelling at the site of the bee sting will happen.  In severe reactions, the localized response triggers the additional discharge of the contents of mast cells throughout the entire body, leading to systemic anaphylaxis.  Localized allergic reactions are typical while systemic anaphylaxis is rare. 

Theoretically, any foreign substance can
produce an anaphylactic reaction. 

Theoretically, any foreign substance can create an anaphylactic reaction.  The most frequent materials to cause anaphylaxis are food proteins, insect bites, medications, antigens in vaccines, environmental pollutants, and compounds. 

It is very important to be aware that anaphylaxis is an abnormal response.  The human bodys immune system overreacts to the foreign protein or substance leading to an excessive reaction.  Most cases of anaphylaxis are thought to possess a familial basis. 

What are the clinical signs of anaphylaxis? 

Clinical signs are dependent on the route of exposure (skin, mouth, inhalation, injection, etc.), the total amount of antigen, and the level of their pets IgE response. If you found any of these signs go for pet emergency care service at GRAH Kingston. 

Clinical signs are dependent on the route of exposure, the amount of antigen, and the level of the pets IgE response. 

The most common clinical signs of anaphylaxis include itching, red skin swellings called wheals or hives, a swollen face or muzzle, excessive salivation or drooling, nausea, and diarrhea.  In systemic anaphylaxis, the dog will have trouble breathing and possibly cyanotic (have a bluish color to the tongue and gums). 


How is it diagnosed? 

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed by a medical history of recent exposure to an offending substance as well as the characteristic clinical indications.  Intradermal skincare and IgE blood tests could be performed to identify certain allergens. 

How is anaphylaxis treated? 

An anaphylactic reaction is a medical emergency and immediate treatment is needed.  The first step is the removal of the inciting material whenever possible, such as eliminating a bees stinger.  Then, the pet is stabilized to prevent or minimize systemic shock, ensuring the airway is open and blood pressure and flow are preserved. 

Intravenous fluids, placement of a breathing tube, and administration of emergency medications such as epinephrine, corticosteroids, atropine, and/or aminophylline are often necessary.  In moderate cases, it could be enough to administer antihistamines and potentially corticosteroids, followed by close monitoring for 24-48 hours. 


What is the prognosis? 

The initial outlook is always safeguarded. Its not possible to understand whether a minor response will advance to a significant catastrophe. 

Since anaphylactic reactions frequently worsen with every incident, the chief objective is to stop following exposure to the offending material. In case youve got a pet that undergoes anaphylaxis, then you could be given emergency drugs to maintain the home or instructions about what to do when your pet shows any symptoms of future responses. 

At Grah Kingston, we have a diverse and talented team of Veterinary professionals. You can trust the skills of our vets, leaving the care and treatment of your pet in their capable hands. Let us earn your trust by becoming one of our veterinary families at GRAH